Likewise, seasonal allergens may influence test results [ 28 ] and therefore diagnostic testing should be performed during the time of year that the individual is experiencing symptoms. Other diseases The conditions referred to in this article are relatively common in athletes and may be frequently seen in general clinical practice. Expiratory flow limitation confounds ventilatory response during exercise in athletes. Misdiagnosis and improper management of asthma and EIB in athletes is well described in the literature, and is evidenced by the large number of athletes who use prescription bronchodilators inhalers who test negative for EIB and the many athletes who report unresolved symptoms despite use of such inhalers [ 18 ]. Philosophy of team B.
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Common causes of dyspnoea in athletes: a practical approach for diagnosis and management
Likewise, indications of potentially more concerning conditions, such as syncope or dysrhythmia, should be referred for specialist examination. Here, we aim to provide an overview of common reasons athletes and seemingly otherwise-healthy physically active individuals present with symptoms associated with dyspnoea in nonemergency settings, an overview of the approach to diagnosing these patients, general tenets of patient management and common pitfalls in working with dyspnoeic athletes. Aside from airway dysfunction, iron deficiency and anaemia, infectious disease, and musculoskeletal conditions are common problems in athletes which ultimately may lead to complaints of dyspnoea. However, this paradigm is inappropriate for a number of reasons described in the following sections. Clinical features of vocal cord dysfunction.